Thursday, September 14, 2017

Music Theory : I or i, IV (or iv, or ii or II), V (quora)

What is the difference between tonic, subdominant and dominant in music?

Hans-Georg Lundahl
Self Employed at Writer and Composer
Answered just now
  • The tonic is the home chord of a composition (the one a Schenkerian analysis will reduce it to), which is stated or implied at the end - same applies to any phrase in it, since these are minor compositions too, it is also its base note;
  • The dominant is one fifth above the tonic, is a major chord, and is the usual chord just before the home chord at the end of a phrase or composition : the reason for its usually being major is that the major third of the dominant is a leading note, leading up to the tonic note;
  • The subdominant does not have a set function, but can replace the dominant in the cadence, thus making it a plagal one, its base note being a leading note to the major third (if such) of the tonic, it can also prepare the dominant, but can also in both capacities be replaced by a major or minor double dominant. It is, essentially, an intermediate.

You can end a composition on tonic in full cadence, or just before tonic, on dominant, in half cadence (meaning you imply, but refuse to actually state the tonic), but you can not very well end it on either subdominant or double dominant, these feeling a bit too intermediate. Transposing a whole phrase that way is another matter, in that case the original subdominant or double dominant of the composition has become the new tonic of the final part of it.

[I am, like some of the other answers, assuming the questioner already can find these on a scale. I am however also more treating them as conventional functions in musical composition rather than as just places in the scale.]

Wednesday, April 5, 2017

England is Still Musical!

Back in the days that the Pen and Pension blog writes about, the English were among the nations most eager to play music at home.

Pen and Pension : Music at Home
Posted on April 5, 2017

Georgian England is the England under Kings (or Usurpers) George I to George IV - 1 August 1714 to 26 June 1830 (at the broadest definition, the Pen and Pension blogger might have a narrower one).

This is some time ago, so it is interesting if Englans is still musical.

Judging by this Oxford girl, that is the case:

Why music should be beautiful... Alma's message for Carinthian Summer Press Conference

She is not just a musician, but also a composer./HGL

Friday, February 24, 2017

Monday, December 5, 2016

Anatole et Malagüeña

Comme on sait, la progression de chordes dite "un anatole" parce que très banale est des chordes:


Ou éventuellement avec des septièmes:


Ensuite, je me cherchais une méthode de la varier un peu moins banale. À savoir, de prendre la chorde Dm et la changer en A♭ :


Ceci remplace donc le ré avec son tritonième la bémol, et la quinte descendante ou quarte ascendante dans la fondamentale avec un démiton descendant. Ici aussi, je pourrais imaginer de poivrer avec septièmes, surtout pour éviter les parallèles.


Et justement ici, ça me frappe, que A♭-G = F-E. La cadence tellement caractéristique d'une Malagüeña.

Je compare donc ...



Où exactement est l'origine de la différence? A♭-G = F-E; donc aussi C-A♭ = Am-F, à ceci près que ça commence une fois en majeur et une fois en mineur. Ah ...

C-Am-A♭ = division chromatique de C-A♭

Am-G-F = division diatonique de Am-F.

Et puisque C-A♭ est en soi-même une progression quelque chromatique, et Am-F est en soi-même strictement diatonique, ça tombe bien.

Voici donc la distance d'un anatole à une malagüeña :

  • 1) remplacez la double-dominante avec son triton
  • 2) remplacez la progression de la tonique au triton de la double-dominante de chromatique en diatonique
  • 3) en ce faisant, changez la tonique de majeur en mineur, pour que ça aille mieux en progression diatonique.

C'est tout!

Hans Georg Lundahl
BU de Nanterre
St. Sabbas, Abbé